Chronic Venous Disease Overview


Leg veins are often affected by chronic venous illness. The blood in your legs is transported by these veins to your heart. Blood flows from the superficial veins in the legs to the deep veins in the legs, where it is collected and pumped back to the heart by the calf muscles. Smaller superficial veins in the legs are also under the control of these valves.

Blood may flow backwards in the veins and pool in the legs if the valves inside the veins don’t operate correctly, if there is an obstruction to normal flow, or if the calf muscles can’t pump effectively. The pressure in the veins might rise when blood pools there. Mild to severe issues may result, including but not limited to: leg, ankle, or foot swelling; skin color changes; a rash on the leg; recurring skin infections; and chronic ulcers. It is thought that those who have these more severe symptoms have “chronic venous insufficiency” Sometimes, for instance after a blood clot, the arms will be affected by chronic venous illness.

Causes Chronic Venous Disease


Leg veins might enlarge due to increased pressure in the veins caused by any medical condition. Chronic venous disease may develop as a result of damaged valves caused by increased pressures inside the veins. Reasons for increased vein pressure include:

Venous thromboembolism – A clot restricts blood flow via the vein, causing pressure to build up. Even when the clot dissolves, this might cause irreversible damage to the vein or valves. The clot might potentially cause physical harm to the valves.

Injury to the leg or surgery – Injury or surgery that restricts blood flow via a vein might cause pressure to rise.

Gaining too much weight – The increased pressure in the veins of the legs caused by pregnancy or obesity might damage the veins and valves.

Excessive time spent standing or sitting – Blood circulation slows down and blood pressure rises when a person stands or sits for lengthy periods of time without getting up and moving about. The muscular tissues within the legs pump blood from the lower body to the heart, explaining why this is the case.

Patients with chronic venous illness often complain of leg discomfort. These issues tend to manifest later in the day or after prolonged durations of standing. Ankles and feet may also swell. Chronic venous disease may cause infections, pigmentation changes, dermatitis, and unhealed wounds. If not properly recognized and treated, ulcers may endure months or years. The treatment aims include symptom reduction, inflammation control, and skin infection and ulcer prevention.

Because of the risk of an adverse response, topical antibiotic ointments or salves, anti-itch creams, and scented lotions are not indicated. Patients whose symptoms have not improved with conventional treatment options may benefit from vein ablation procedures.

Chronic Venous Disease Symptoms


  • Heaviness or swelling, lower legs and ankles
  • Pain
  • Itching
  • Twisted, swollen veins


Venous Disease Risk Factors


  • Immobility
  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Family history of venous disease
  • History of blood clots


Chronic Venous Disease Diagnosis


Varicose veins, leg swelling, skin abnormalities, and skin ulcers are just some of the symptoms and indications that doctors look for when diagnosing chronic venous illness. The physician may use further diagnostic procedures, such as an ultrasound, to evaluate vein valve function and determine if the issue is with the superficial veins or the deep veins.

Reducing edema, fixing skin issues, avoiding and treating ulcers, and increasing blood flow to the legs are all part of the standard treatment for chronic venous illness.

  • Leg elevation
  • Exercises
  • Compression therapy
  • Compression stockings
  • Duplex ultrasonography, which evaluates leg vein anatomy and blood flow.
  • Color-flow imaging, like duplex ultrasonography but using color to show blood flow.
  • Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) combines a huge magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to obtain detailed organ and structural images.


Prevention of Chronic Venous Disease


Numerous lifestyle modifications may aid in the prevention of chronic venous disease:

  • Quit smoking.
  • Lose weight.
  • Control chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
  • Take aspirin to prevent blood clots.
  • Reduce the amount of salt in your diet.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Keep your legs elevated when possible.